Gerald Bast
Elias Carayannis
David F. J. Campbell
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Gerald BAST

Following graduation in law and economics at the University of Linz, doctorate in law (1974). Head of the Federal Ministry of Science and Research Department for Organisational Law and Principle Issues regarding the reform of the universities and art colleges (1991 - 1999) and consultant to the Ludwig Boltzmann Society for Scientific Research (1992 - 1999).

Rector of the University of Applied Arts Vienna (since 2000), deputy chairman of the Federation of Austrian Universities, spokesman of the rectors of the Austrian Universities of Art, and vice-president and member of the presidium of the Conference of Austrian Universities. Member of the scientific advisory board of the “Zeitschrift für Hochschulrecht, Hochschulmanagement und Hochschulpolitik” and member of the board of the European League of Institutes of the Arts (ELIA).


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Elias Carayannis
Dr. Elias G. Carayannis is Full Professor of Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, as well as co-Founder and co-Director of the Global and Entrepreneurial Finance Research Institute (GEFRI) and Director of Research on Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, European Union Research Center, (EURC) at the School of Business of the George Washington University in Washington, DC. Dr. Carayannis' teaching and research activities focus on the areas of strategic Government-University-Industry R&D partnerships, technology road-mapping, technology transfer and commercialization, international science and technology policy, technological entrepreneurship and regional economic development.

Dr. Carayannis has several publications in both academic and practitioner journals, including IEEE Transactions in Engineering Management, Research Policy, Journal of R&D Management, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, International Journal of Technology Management, Technovation, Journal of Technology Transfer, Engineering Management Journal, Journal of Growth and Change, Review of Regional Studies, International Journal of Global Energy Issues, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Le Progres Technique, and Focus on Change Management. He has also published sixteen books to date on science, technology, innovation and entrepreneurship with CRC Press, Praeger/Greenwood, Palgrave/MacMillan and Edward Elgar, and has several more projects under contract.

He is Editor-in-Chief of the Edward Elgar Book Series on Science, Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the Springer Book Series on Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management; the Palgrave MacMillan Book Series on Democracy, Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Growth (DIE4Growth), the Springer Journal of the Knowledge Economy; the Springer Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A Systems View Across Time and Space and the IGI International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development; Associate Editor of the International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development and on the Editorial Boards of several academic journals.

He has consulted for a wide variety technology-driven organizations in both government and the private sector, including the World Bank, the European Commission, the Inter-American Development Bank, the US Agency for International Development, IKED, the National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research Program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology
Program, the National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing (NACFAM), the USN CNO Office, Sandia National Laboratories' New Technological Ventures Initiative, the General Electric Corporate Training & Development Center, Cowen & Co, First Albany International, Entreprises Importfab, and others. He is fluent in English, French, German, Greek, and has a working knowledge of Spanish.


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David F. J. Campbell
DAVID F. J. CAMPBELL is a Quality Enhancement Expert and Quality Researcher at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna (http://www.dieangewandte.at/jart/prj3/angewandte/main.jart?rel=de&content-id=1268829109404&reserve-mode=active); Lecturer in Political Science at the University of Vienna (http://politikwissenschaft.univie.ac.at/institut/personen/lektorinnen/); and a Research Fellow (Senior Scientist) at the Institute of Science Communication and Higher Education Research (WIHO), Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (iff), Alpen-Adria-University of Klagenfurt (http://uni-klu.ac.at/wiho/inhalt/876.htm). He studied political science at the University of Vienna, completing his studies with a doctoral degree in 1996. In 2014, Campbell received a “Habilitation” (Doctor Habilitatus) from the University of Vienna with a Venia Docendi for Comparative Political Science.

Campbell lead-authored Epistemic Governance in Higher Education: Quality Enhancement of Universities for Development (Springer, 2013) and Democracy Ranking (Edition 2012): The Quality of Democracy in the World (Books on Demand, 2012); co-authored Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems: 21st-Century Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Development (Springer, 2012); co-edited Cyber-Development, Cyber-Democracy and Cyber-Defense: Challenges, Opportunities and Implications for Theory, Policy and Practice (Springer, 2014), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Springer, 2013), Knowledge Creation, Diffusion, and Use in Innovation Networks and Knowledge Clusters (Praeger, 2006) and Demokratiequalität in Österreich: Zustand und Entwicklungsperspektiven (Leske + Budrich, 2002) (“Democracy Quality in Austria”). His articles on knowledge, innovation, knowledge economy and democracy (knowledge democracy and quality of democracy) have been published in several international journals (citations of his academic work can be followed at Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.at/citations?user=GSNvicMAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao). Campbell teaches at the University of Klagenfurt, University of Vienna and the University of Applied Arts Vienna and George Washington University in Washington D.C. (Elliott School of International Affairs).
David Campbell is Academic Director of the Global Democracy Ranking of the quality of democracy (http://democracyranking.org/) and Senior Associate Editor (Chief Associate Editor) to the following journals and the following book series:

Journal of the Knowledge Economy (JKEC) (Springer),

Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (JIE) (Springer Open Source),

International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development (IJSESD) (IGI Global),

Arts, Research, Innovation, and Society (Springer),


“Art is the synapse between the towers of knowledge”

Gerald Bast and David F. J. Campbell emphasize that knowledge is more than the simple accumulation of facts. In their conversation with Robert Czepel they explain how art will revolutionize the concept of knowledge.

How relevant is art for society today? Does it serve as a necessary corrective, or is it merely a jester at the court of wealth and power?

GB: Art was always a jester at the courts of the powerful – whereby capital has replaced the popes and kings of old. And yet art has always had another function reaching beyond the circles of power. I think that at present the relevance of art can be expanded, at least in the broad middle of society. Presumably there never have been – quantitatively – as many art products, exhibitions and auctions as there are today. Aside from art experts, however, a relatively small portion of the population is affected by art. Its effective outreach should be greater.

You are not satisfied?

GB: At an art university one should never be satisfied with the position of the arts in society!

What would be necessary to improve the position of the arts?

GB: With regard to presentation, the arts are strongly limited to museums, galleries, theaters and concert halls. When people visit major cities and go to the museums, their activity is presumably dominated by touristic and economic factors. But one should not forget that the arts also have an enlightening and consciousness expanding function. We have to get the arts out of the classic venues in which they are presented.

The project “ARIS – Arts, Research, Innovation and Society” is seeking to clarify the position of the arts in society. The core of the project will be a series of books that you both will edit together with Elias Carayannis. How do you assess the position of art, Mr. Campbell?

DC: Traditionally the arts are seen as belonging to the realm of aesthetics. And yet there is another approach, which stresses the inquiring and innovative character of the arts and their function in a knowledge-based society. When one adopts this perspective, one must also assert that the arts are of eminent significance to society.
The knowledge-generating power of the arts is underappreciated?
DC: Well, twenty years ago, at least, this aspect was not seen so clearly. The concept of “arts-based research” did not yet exist at this time, and its significance is only really starting to unfold today.
What form does innovation take in the arts?
GB: The whole of art history presents a narrative of innovation. Both aesthetically and in terms of reception. Our overall objective – and the ARIS project is an important part of this aim – is to overcome the technology sector's monopolization of innovation. In the public's perception, the fact that innovation has always been closely linked to art and culture has been forgotten. In the history of the Renaissance this is readily apparent – and thus today there is a loosely organized movement operating under the title “Renaissance 2.0”. Take, for instance, the national strategy of Singapore. It is called: “The City of the Renaissance”. There is a feeling here for what is missing. We want to support this feeling with a theoretical foundation, in order to give it more weight.
How did the ARIS project originate, and how will it develop?
GB: Elias Carayannis and David Campbell invited me to contribute an article to an encyclopedia on the theme of creativity and innovation. My thesis was this: Now, after the industrial revolution, we need a creative revolution. Apparently my assertion generated a certain degree of interest. When the three of us came together in person, we soon decided that it would be a good idea to publish a book and organize a series of events on this subject.


Anja Seipenbusch-Hufschmied: Could you tell me something about the ARIS project?

Elias G. Carayannis: This has been a great experience and a wonderful opportunity to look in a systematic and substantive way into issues that are at the interface of art, economy and society – and particularly creative economy and society.

Our work together has grown into a book series that we are publishing with Springer under the title Arts, Research, Innovation and Society. The co-editors of the series are Rector Gerald Bast and myself, and also David Campbell. The discussions and interactions leading up to the publishing project resulted from my introduction to Dr. Bast by Dr. Campbell, which took place in October 2012. I had been working with Dr. Campbell for the last ten years or so on a number of different projects. At the time Dr. Bast was already interested in producing and publishing a series of books about arts.

I had already edited several book series, scientific journals and also an encyclopedia bringing together issues of creativity, invention, innovation and entrepreneurship as well as science, technology and economic development. Some of them were done with Springer, but also with other publishers, such as Palgrave Macmillan, Edward Elgar and others. Dr. Campbell, as a result of our prior work together, thought it would be a good idea to introduce us and propose that we collaborate and explore whether we could co-edit a series.

Of course I became interested immediately, and we started interacting to develop a proper thematic focus, a title and the ingredients, if you will, the conceptual and intellectual footprint of the series. We experimented with different names, and one which I proposed – because I also find it phonetically appealing – was ARIS: it brings together and connects arts with society, but also, at the heart of it, with research and innovation. So if you look at this, it actually could be arts and society connected through research and innovation.

These are not the only links, but we are interested in exploring the relationship of arts to society, and the role and presence of arts in society with regard to possible current and emerging views and trends on research and innovation. And that brings us right back to the issue of knowledge and creative economy and society: it is very important whether we look at this from the perspective of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, or in a more pure sense, trying to understand the nature and dynamics of the arts, and fields related to the arts today.

One might even look at the role – and the nature and dynamics – of the political regime within which arts, research, innovation and society exist, operate and evolve. These issues are reflected in the questions that define what the book series is about, and the call for contributions to the ARIS project – once again, the acronym stands for Arts, Research, Innovation and Society – includes questions like: Could and should artists be researchers? How are the systems of the arts and sciences connected or disconnected? What is the position and status of the arts in defining the terms progress and development?

ASH: Could you describe the main themes that will be addressed in the first book?

EGC: The inaugural volume will have contributions from a number of people, both academics and practitioners. This has always been our focus and our interest: an approach that integrates multiple viewpoints. In particular, it reflects a concept that we developed with Dr. Campbell a few years ago, which we call the Quadruple Helix Innovation Model.

This model is oriented toward bringing together and linking government, university and industry, both through top-down policies and bottom-up initiatives growing out of civil society. The idea is that policies should be further fine-tuned, shaped and evolved – in fact made more intelligent and effective – by civil-society-based actions and interactions with government, university and industry. 

Within this context, we will try to include contributing authors from all four areas, if possible. In this first book we have university contributors, including the Angewandte (The Vienna University of Applied Arts), but also people who are working with the United Nations Development Program and the Inter-American Development Bank. Among the other participating universities are Columbia University and Tsinghua University in China. The books' themes are the essential ingredients and elements of ARIS: What insights arise from observing the dynamics, interactions and results of arts from a research and innovation point of view?