Quadruple Helix Innovation SystemsSee the figures below.
The Quadruple Helix brings in the additional perspective of knowledge society and of knowledge democracy for supporting, promoting and advancing knowledge production (research) and knowledge application (innovation).The Quadruple-Helix-innovation-system understanding emphasizes that sustainable development of and in economy (knowledge economy) requires that there is a co-evolution of knowledge economy and knowledge society with knowledge democracy.
The models of the Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix innovation systems are designed to refer to an extended complexity in knowledge production and knowledge application (innovation), thus their analytical architecture is broader conceptualized. The Quadruple Helix adds as a fourth helix the media-based and culture-based public, the civil society and arts, artistic research and arts-based innovation. The Quintuple Helix innovation model is even more comprehensive in its analytical approach, adding the fifth helix (and perspective) of the natural environments of society. The Quintuple Helix addresses social ecology and the socio-ecological transition.
Elias G. Carayannis and David F. J. Campbell are the two co-creators and co-inventors of the Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix innovation systems.